Using ECMAScript 6 today

Update 2014-09-02: Rewrote Sect. “More material on ECMAScript 6”; mentioned iterators, generators and promises.

ECMAScript 6 (ES6) still sounds like something from a far-away future. After all, it will only become a standard by mid 2015. However, its features are continually appearing in browsers and there are compilers that translate ES6 code to ES5 code. The latter is already a compelling solution, because the ECMAScript 6 feature set is already frozen.

This blog post gives a brief overview of ECMAScript 6 features and describes tools that enable you to use them today.

ECMAScript 6 highlights

This section shows a few ECMAScript 6 highlights.

New syntax

Object literals – property value shorthand (used for destructuring in later examples):

    let first = 'Jane';
    let last = 'Doe';
    let obj = { first, last };
    // Same as:
    let obj = { first: first, last: last };

Object literals – method definitions:

    let obj = {
        myMethod(arg0, arg1) {

Arrow functions:

    let arr = [1, 2, 3];
    let squares = arr.map(x => x * x);

Spread operator:

    let arr = [-1, 7, 2];
    let highest = Math.max(...arr); // 7
    new Date(...[2011, 11, 24]) // 2011, December 24, 00:00
    // Non-destructively concatenate single elements
    let arr2 = [...arr, 9, -6]; // [-1, 7, 2, 9, -6]


    let [all, year, month, day] =
    let { first, last } = { first: 'Jane', last: 'Doe' };

Default parameter values:

    function findClosestShape(x=0, y=0) {
        // ...

Rest parameters:

    function format(pattern, ...params) {
        return params;
    console.log(format('a', 'b', 'c')); // ['b', 'c']

Named parameters via destructuring:

    class Entries {
        // ...
        selectEntries({ from = 0, to = this.length } = {}) {
        // Long: { from: from=0, to: to=this.length }
            // Use `from` and `to`
    let entries = new Entries();
    entries.selectEntries({ from: 5, to: 15 });
    entries.selectEntries({ from: 5 });
    entries.selectEntries({ to: 15 });

Template strings:

    let str = String.raw`This is a text
    with multiple lines.
    Escapes are not interpreted,
    \n is not a newline.`;
    // XRegExp library
    var parts = '/2012/10/Page.html'.match(XRegExp.rx`
        ^ # match at start of string only
        / (?<year> [^/]+ ) # capture top dir name as year
        / (?<month> [^/]+ ) # capture subdir name as month
        / (?<title> [^/]+ ) # capture base name as title
        \.html? $ # .htm or .html file ext at end of path
    console.log(parts.year); // 2012


    // Superclass
    class Person {
        constructor(name) {
            this.name = name;
        describe() {
            return "Person called "+this.name;
    // Subclass
    class Employee extends Person {
        constructor(name, title) {
            // Long: super.constructor(name)
            this.title = title;
        describe() {
            return super() + " (" + this.title + ")";
                   // Long: super.describe()

Subclassing built-ins such as Error and Array:

    class MyError extends Error {
        // ...

for-of loop (works for all objects that implement the ES6 iteration protocol):

    let arr = ['foo', 'bar', 'baz'];
    for (let element of arr) {
    /* Output:
    for (let [index,element] of arr.entries()) {
        console.log(`${index}. ${element}`);
    /* Output:
       0. foo
       1. bar
       2. baz

Iterators and generators (iterators are a protocol for retrieving the contents of a collection which is supported by the for-of loop; generators are “pausable functions” that help with implementing iterators and more):

    // Generator function, implementing an iterator over objects
    function* objectEntries(obj) {
        // In ES6, you can use strings or symbols as property keys,
        // Reflect.ownKeys() retrieves both
        for (let key of Reflect.ownKeys(obj)) {
            yield [key, obj[key]]; // pause and return a value
    let obj = { first: 'Jane', last: 'Doe' };
    for (let [key,value] of objectEntries(obj)) {
        console.log(`${key}. ${value}`);
    /* Output:
       first. Jane
       last. Doe


    // lib.js
    export const sqrt = Math.sqrt;
    export function square(x) {
        return x * x;
    export function diag(x, y) {
        return sqrt(square(x) + square(y));
    // main.js
    import { square, diag } from 'lib';
    console.log(square(11)); // 121
    console.log(diag(4, 3)); // 5

New functionality in the standard library

Promises: an API that helps with asynchronous programming. Quoting “JavaScript Promises: There and back again” by Jake Archibald (a great intro to ES6 promises):

all new DOM APIs with async success/failure methods will use promises. This is happening already with Quota Management, Font Load Events, ServiceWorker, Web MIDI, Streams, and more.


    class Point {
        constructor(x, y) {
            Object.assign(this, { x, y });
            // ES6: { x, y } is abbrev. for { x: x, y: y }


    > [6, 8, -5].findIndex(x => x < 0)
    > [6, 8, 5].findIndex(x => x < 0)


    > ['a', 'b', 'c'].fill(7)
    [ 7, 7, 7 ]
    > new Array(3).fill(7)
    [ 7, 7, 7 ]

New string methods:

    > 'hello world'.startsWith('hello')
    > '*'.repeat(5)

Map (whose keys can be arbitrary values):

    > let obj = {};
    > let map = new Map();
    > map.set(obj, 123);
    > map.get(obj)
    > map.has(obj)
    > map.delete(obj);
    > map.has(obj)


    let arr = [5, 1, 5, 7, 7, 5];
    let unique = [...new Set(arr)]; // [ 5, 1, 7 ]

More Material on ECMAScript 6

Using ECMAScript 6 today

ECMAScript 6 features are continually appearing in engines. You can look up which ones are already supported where in Kangax’ “ECMAScript 6 compatibility table”.

But for actual projects, you will probably use tools that enable ECMAScript 6 on current engines:

  • es6-tools” (by Addy Osmani) is a comprehensive list of such tools.
  • ES.next showcase” (by Sindre Sorhus) showcases real-world usage of ECMAScript 6 features. Two examples:
    • The next version of Ember.js supports ES6 modules via the ES6 Module Transpiler (see below).
    • The next version AngularJS supports ES6 via Traceur (see below).

The following sections describe a few ES6-enabling tools.

ECMAScript 6 compilers

If a tool transforms ECMAScript 6 code to ECMAScript 5 then its capabilities usually go beyond transpiling, which is why it is called a compiler. Two important compilers are TypeScript and Traceur.


It is the declared goal of TypeScript’s creators to track ECMAScript 6. Hence, the language gives you ECMAScript 6 plus type annotations (which are optional). TypeScript is easy to install via npm and supported by the IDEs Visual Studio and WebStorm.

TypeScript’s module syntax is currently a bit behind the ECMAScript 6 specification (something that will be fixed eventually). It supports two module standards: CJS (Node.js) and AMD (RequireJS).


Traceur is the most popular pure ECMAScript 6 compiler. Its support for the new features is impressively complete. Traceur’s creators pronounce its name “tray-SOOR”. There are two ways in which you can use Traceur.

Statically: Traceur-based plugins for build tools (Grunt, Gulp, Broccoli, etc.) let you automatically compile ES6 files to ES5 files, during development. Consult es6-tools for details.

Dynamically: If you include Traceur in your web app then you can use it to compile ES6 code on the fly, by giving script tags the type="module".

    <!doctype html>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <div id="output"></div>
        <script src="https://google.github.io/traceur-compiler/bin/traceur.js"></script>
        <script src="https://google.github.io/traceur-compiler/src/bootstrap.js"></script>
        <script type="module">
            var output = document.getElementById('output');
            var w = 'world';
            output.textContent = `Hello ${w}!`;

You can tell Traceur via a compiler option what module standard the compiled ES5 output should use:

  • The ES6 module loader API (which Traceur supports on ES5 via a shim)
  • AMD (RequireJS)
  • CJS (Node.js)

Module systems and ECMAScript 6

Several existing and new JavaScript module systems support ECMAScript 6, sometimes out of the box, sometimes via a plugin.

  • AMD and CJS: The ES6 Module Transpiler adds just the ECMAScript 6 module syntax to ECMAScript 5 and compiles it to either AMD or CJS. What I like about this solution is its minimalism.
  • Browserify: supports ES6 via the es6ify transform, which is based on Traceur.
  • webpack comes out of the box with ECMAScript 6 support.
  • ES6 Module Loader Polyfill: is based on the ES6 API and “dynamically loads ES6 modules in Node.js and current browsers”. Complemented by two tools:
    • SystemJS: based on the ES6 module loader, loads AMD and CJS modules in addition to ES6 modules.
    • jspm.io: a package manager for SystemJS.

ECMAScript 6 command lines

JavaScript command lines are useful for interactively trying out features. This section describes command lines that accept ECMAScript 6.

ES6 Fiddle

ES6 Fiddle (GitHub repo) by Jeff McRiffey is an ECMAScript 6 command line base on Traceur. You can save an example under a URL with a unique ID by clicking one of the icons the toolbar.

Traceur transcoding demo

But Traceur also comes with its own interactive demo page. A few tips for using that page:

  • You can open the console and will see anything you log to it in the ES6 source code via console.log().
  • The ES6 source code is added to the page’s URL, which means that you can share ES6 examples via the URL.
  • Traceur implements a variety of ES6 methods in ES5, which means that you can use methods such as Array.from() from the console.
  • let and const variable declarations are still experimental and can be switched on via an option. However, the code that they produce is clunky. Thankfully, there are plans to vastly improve support for let and const: For example, Traceur will translate let to var in many cases. Thus, in those cases, there won’t be a penalty for using the (forward-looking) let.

ECMAScript 6 shims

Shims are libraries that bring features from future systems to current systems. The ECMAScript 6 standard library contains interesting new functionality, which often can be backported to ECMAScript 5 via libraries:

  • es6-shim (by Paul Millr): supports many features of the ECMAScript 6 standard library.
  • Shims for ECMAScript 6 promises (Traceur comes its own promise polyfill):
    • RSVP.js is a superset of the ES6 API.
      • es6-promise is a subset of RSVP.js and implements just the ES6 API.
    • Q.Promise is compatible with ES6.

Does it still make sense to learn ECMAScript 5?

As we have seen, you can already exclusively write code in ECMAScript 6 and avoid older versions of JavaScript. Does that mean that you shouldn’t learn ECMAScript 5, anymore? Alas, it doesn’t, for several reasons:

  • ECMAScript 6 is a superset of ECMAScript 5 – new JavaScript versions must never break existing code. Thus, nothing you learn about ECMAScript 5 is learned in vain.

  • There are several ECMAScript 6 features that kind of replace ECMAScript 5 features, but still use them as their foundation. Two examples: classes are internally translated to constructors and methods are still functions (as they have always been).

  • As long as ECMAScript 6 is compiled to ECMAScript 5, it is useful to understand the output of the compilation process. And you’ll have to compile to ES5 for a while (probably years), until you can rely on ES6 being available in all relevant browsers, in the same manner in that you can usually rely on ES5 now.

  • It’s important to be able to understand legacy code.


Axel Rauschmayer said...

Great article! As always, well detailed and explanatory!

Axel Rauschmayer said...

Very useful, Learned new things about JS. Thanks.

Axel Rauschmayer said...

Great article, however:

"Traceur-based plugins for build tools (Grunt, Gulp, Broccoli, etc.) let you automatically compile ES6 files to ES5 files, during development"

Not quite right I think. You still need to use a traceur-runtime.js in your build, the transpiled code won't be stand alone code.

Axel Rauschmayer said...

I wish they didnt chose the backtick.It's a pain in the ass to type on many keyboards,including french keyboards.

Axel Rauschmayer said...

Thanks, great article, really.

Axel Rauschmayer said...

I have to support IE 8 - 10. EcmaScript 6 does not seem helpful to me just yet.

Axel Rauschmayer said...

Important to note that TypeScript is currently missing many of the features in the list of ES6 features on this page. However, over time, yes, TypeScript will very likely support all ES6 features.

Axel Rauschmayer said...

It's hidden in Webstorm (and all Jetbrains product):
preferences -> javacript -> language = ECMAScript6;

Syntax highlighting and automatic compilation since March 2012:


Axel Rauschmayer said...

Traceur has gulp and grunt integration as well. Looking at the compatability tables, it looks like traceur has the best current compatability. http://kangax.github.io/compat-table/es6/